RWD Media Queries

CSS Tutorial


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CSS Advanced


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CSS Responsive

CSS Grid

Responsive Web design -Media Queries

What is a Media Query?

Media query is a CSS technique that was introduced in CSS3.

It uses the @media rule to include a block of CSS properties only if a specified condition is true.

Example

If the browser window is 600px or smaller, the background color will be lightblue:

				
					<body>
<h6>Resize the browser window to see the effect!</h6>
<p>The media query will only apply if the media type is screen and the viewport is 480px wide or wider.</p>
</body>
				
			
CSS
				
					body {
  background-color: pink;
}

@media screen and (min-width: 480px) {
  body {
    background-color: lightgreen;
  }
}
				
			

Output

Resize the browser window to see the effect!

The media query will only apply if the media type is screen and the viewport is 480px wide or wider.

Add a Breakpoint

Earlier, we designed a web page with rows and columns, and it was responsive, but it did not appear good on a small screen.

Media queries can help with that. We can add a breakpoint where certain parts of the design will behave differently on each side of the breakpoint.

When the screen (browser window) gets smaller than 768px, each column should have a width of 100%:

HTML
				
					<div class="header">
  <h1>Header</h1>
</div>

<div class="row">
  <div class="col-3 menu">
    <ul>
    <li>menu 1</li>
    <li>menu 2</li>
    <li>menu 3</li>
    <li>menu 4</li>
    </ul>
  </div>

  <div class="col-6">
    <h1>New One</h1>
    <p></p>
  </div>

  <div class="col-3 right">
    <div class="aside">
      <h2>Heading one</h2>
      <p>Paragraph</p>
      <h2>Heading two</h2>
      <p>paragraph</p>
      <h2>heading 3</h2>
      <p>paragraph</p>
    </div>
  </div>
</div>

<div class="footer">
  <p>Resize the browser window to see how the content respond to the resizing.</p>
</div>
				
			
CSS
				
					* {
  box-sizing: border-box;
}

.row::after {
  content: "";
  clear: both;
  display: block;
}

[class*="col-"] {
  float: left;
  padding: 15px;
}

html {
  font-family: "Lucida Sans", sans-serif;
}

.header {
  background-color: #9933cc;
  color: #ffffff;
  padding: 15px;
}

.menu ul {
  list-style-type: none;
  margin: 0;
  padding: 0;
}

.menu li {
  padding: 8px;
  margin-bottom: 7px;
  background-color: #33b5e5;
  color: #ffffff;
  box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.12), 0 1px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.24);
}

.menu li:hover {
  background-color: #0099cc;
}

.aside {
  background-color: #33b5e5;
  padding: 15px;
  color: #ffffff;
  text-align: center;
  font-size: 14px;
  box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.12), 0 1px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.24);
}

.footer {
  background-color: #0099cc;
  color: #ffffff;
  text-align: center;
  font-size: 12px;
  padding: 15px;
}

/* For desktop: */
.col-1 {width: 8.33%;}
.col-2 {width: 16.66%;}
.col-3 {width: 25%;}
.col-4 {width: 33.33%;}
.col-5 {width: 41.66%;}
.col-6 {width: 50%;}
.col-7 {width: 58.33%;}
.col-8 {width: 66.66%;}
.col-9 {width: 75%;}
.col-10 {width: 83.33%;}
.col-11 {width: 91.66%;}
.col-12 {width: 100%;}

@media only screen and (max-width: 768px) {
  /* For mobile phones: */
  [class*="col-"] {
    width: 100%;
  }
}
				
			

Output

Header

New One

Heading one

Paragraph

Heading two

paragraph

heading 3

paragraph

Resize the browser window to see how the content respond to the resizing.

Always Design for Mobile First

Mobile First refers to designing for mobile before designing for desktop or any other device.

This means that we need to make some changes to our CSS.

Instead of changing styles when the width gets smaller than 768px, we can change the design when the width gets larger than 768px. This will make our design Mobile First

HTML
				
					<div class="header">
  <h1>Header</h1>
</div>

<div class="row">
  <div class="col-3 menu">
    <ul>
    <li>menu 1</li>
    <li>menu 2</li>
    <li>menu 3</li>
    <li>menu 4</li>
    </ul>
  </div>

  <div class="col-6">
    <h1>New One</h1>
    <p></p>
  </div>

  <div class="col-3 right">
    <div class="aside">
      <h2>Heading one</h2>
      <p>Paragraph</p>
      <h2>Heading two</h2>
      <p>paragraph</p>
      <h2>heading 3</h2>
      <p>paragraph</p>
    </div>
  </div>
</div>

<div class="footer">
  <p>Resize the browser window to see how the content respond to the resizing.</p>
</div>
				
			
CSS
				
					<style>
* {
  box-sizing: border-box;
}

.row::after {
  content: "";
  clear: both;
  display: table;
}

[class*="col-"] {
  float: left;
  padding: 15px;
}

html {
  font-family: "Lucida Sans", sans-serif;
}

.header {
  background-color: #9933cc;
  color: #ffffff;
  padding: 15px;
}

.menu ul {
  list-style-type: none;
  margin: 0;
  padding: 0;
}

.menu li {
  padding: 8px;
  margin-bottom: 7px;
  background-color: #33b5e5;
  color: #ffffff;
  box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.12), 0 1px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.24);
}

.menu li:hover {
  background-color: #0099cc;
}

.aside {
  background-color: #33b5e5;
  padding: 15px;
  color: #ffffff;
  text-align: center;
  font-size: 14px;
  box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.12), 0 1px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.24);
}

.footer {
  background-color: #0099cc;
  color: #ffffff;
  text-align: center;
  font-size: 12px;
  padding: 15px;
}

/* For mobile phones: */
[class*="col-"] {
  width: 100%;
}

@media only screen and (min-width: 768px) {
  /* For desktop: */
  .col-1 {width: 8.33%;}
  .col-2 {width: 16.66%;}
  .col-3 {width: 25%;}
  .col-4 {width: 33.33%;}
  .col-5 {width: 41.66%;}
  .col-6 {width: 50%;}
  .col-7 {width: 58.33%;}
  .col-8 {width: 66.66%;}
  .col-9 {width: 75%;}
  .col-10 {width: 83.33%;}
  .col-11 {width: 91.66%;}
  .col-12 {width: 100%;}
}
				
			

Output

Header

New One

Heading one

Paragraph

Heading two

paragraph

heading 3

paragraph

Resize the browser window to see how the content respond to the resizing.

Another Breakpoint

You can add as many breakpoints as you like.

We can also insert a breakpoint between tablets and mobile phones

CSS
				
					(col- and col-s-):
/* For mobile phones: */
[class*="col-"] {
  width: 100%;
}

@media only screen and (min-width: 600px) {
  /* For tablets: */
  .col-s-1 {width: 8.33%;}
  .col-s-2 {width: 16.66%;}
  .col-s-3 {width: 25%;}
  .col-s-4 {width: 33.33%;}
  .col-s-5 {width: 41.66%;}
  .col-s-6 {width: 50%;}
  .col-s-7 {width: 58.33%;}
  .col-s-8 {width: 66.66%;}
  .col-s-9 {width: 75%;}
  .col-s-10 {width: 83.33%;}
  .col-s-11 {width: 91.66%;}
  .col-s-12 {width: 100%;}
}

@media only screen and (min-width: 768px) {
  /* For desktop: */
  .col-1 {width: 8.33%;}
  .col-2 {width: 16.66%;}
  .col-3 {width: 25%;}
  .col-4 {width: 33.33%;}
  .col-5 {width: 41.66%;}
  .col-6 {width: 50%;}
  .col-7 {width: 58.33%;}
  .col-8 {width: 66.66%;}
  .col-9 {width: 75%;}
  .col-10 {width: 83.33%;}
  .col-11 {width: 91.66%;}
  .col-12 {width: 100%;}
}

				
			

It might seem odd that we have two sets of identical classes, but it gives us the opportunity in HTML, to decide what can happen with the columns at each breakpoint:

HTML Example

For desktop:

The first and the third section will both span 3 columns each. The middle section will span 6 columns.

For tablets:

The first section will span 3 columns, the second will span 9, and the third section will be displayed below the first two sections, and it will span 12 columns.

CSS
				
					* {
  box-sizing: border-box;
}

.row::after {
  content: "";
  clear: both;
  display: table;
}

[class*="col-"] {
  float: left;
  padding: 15px;
}

html {
  font-family: "Lucida Sans", sans-serif;
}

.header {
  background-color: #9933cc;
  color: #ffffff;
  padding: 15px;
}

.menu ul {
  list-style-type: none;
  margin: 0;
  padding: 0;
}

.menu li {
  padding: 8px;
  margin-bottom: 7px;
  background-color: #33b5e5;
  color: #ffffff;
  box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.12), 0 1px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.24);
}

.menu li:hover {
  background-color: #0099cc;
}

.aside {
  background-color: #33b5e5;
  padding: 15px;
  color: #ffffff;
  text-align: center;
  font-size: 14px;
  box-shadow: 0 1px 3px rgba(0,0,0,0.12), 0 1px 2px rgba(0,0,0,0.24);
}

.footer {
  background-color: #0099cc;
  color: #ffffff;
  text-align: center;
  font-size: 12px;
  padding: 15px;
}

/* For mobile phones: */
[class*="col-"] {
  width: 100%;
}

@media only screen and (min-width: 600px) {
  /* For tablets: */
  .col-s-1 {width: 8.33%;}
  .col-s-2 {width: 16.66%;}
  .col-s-3 {width: 25%;}
  .col-s-4 {width: 33.33%;}
  .col-s-5 {width: 41.66%;}
  .col-s-6 {width: 50%;}
  .col-s-7 {width: 58.33%;}
  .col-s-8 {width: 66.66%;}
  .col-s-9 {width: 75%;}
  .col-s-10 {width: 83.33%;}
  .col-s-11 {width: 91.66%;}
  .col-s-12 {width: 100%;}
}
@media only screen and (min-width: 768px) {
  /* For desktop: */
  .col-1 {width: 8.33%;}
  .col-2 {width: 16.66%;}
  .col-3 {width: 25%;}
  .col-4 {width: 33.33%;}
  .col-5 {width: 41.66%;}
  .col-6 {width: 50%;}
  .col-7 {width: 58.33%;}
  .col-8 {width: 66.66%;}
  .col-9 {width: 75%;}
  .col-10 {width: 83.33%;}
  .col-11 {width: 91.66%;}
  .col-12 {width: 100%;}
}

				
			

Output

Header

New One

Heading one

Paragraph

Heading two

paragraph

heading 3

paragraph

Resize the browser window to see how the content respond to the resizing.

Typical Device Breakpoints

There are tons of screens and devices with different heights and widths, so it is hard to create an exact breakpoint for each device. To keep things simple you could target five groups:

HTML
				
					<p class="example">Resize the browser window to see how the background color of this paragraph changes on different screen sizes.</p>
				
			
CSS
				
					.example {
  padding: 20px;
  color: white;
}
/* Extra small devices (phones, 600px and down) */
@media only screen and (max-width: 600px) {
  .example {background: red;}
}

/* Small devices (portrait tablets and large phones, 600px and up) */
@media only screen and (min-width: 600px) {
  .example {background: green;}
}

/* Medium devices (landscape tablets, 768px and up) */
@media only screen and (min-width: 768px) {
  .example {background: blue;}
} 

/* Large devices (laptops/desktops, 992px and up) */
@media only screen and (min-width: 992px) {
  .example {background: orange;}
} 

/* Extra large devices (large laptops and desktops, 1200px and up) */
@media only screen and (min-width: 1200px) {
  .example {background: pink;}
}
				
			

Output

Resize the browser window to see how the background color of this paragraph changes on different screen sizes.

Hide Elements with Media Queries

Media queries are also used to hide elements on different screen sizes:

I will be hidden on small screens.

HTML

				
					<div class="example">Example DIV.</div>

<p>When the browser's width is 600px wide or less, hide the div element. Resize the browser window to see the effect.</p>

				
			

CSS

				
					div.example {
  background-color: yellow;
  padding: 20px;
}

@media screen and (max-width: 600px) {
  div.example {
    display: none;
  }
}
				
			

Output

Example DIV.

When the browser's width is 600px wide or less, hide the div element. Resize the browser window to see the effect.

Change Font Size With Media Queries

You can also use media queries to change the font size of an element on different screen sizes:

HTML

				
					
<div class="example">Example DIV.</div>

<p>When the browser's width is 600px wide or less, set the font-size of DIV to 30px. When it is 601px or wider, set the font-size to 80px. Resize the browser window to see the effect.</p>
				
			

CSS

				
					div.example {
  background-color: lightgrey;
  padding: 30px;
}

@media screen and (min-width: 600px) {
  div.example {
    font-size: 20px;
  }
}

@media screen and (max-width: 600px) {
  div.example {
    font-size: 10px;
  }
}
				
			

Output

Example DIV.

When the browser's width is 600px wide or less, set the font-size of DIV to 30px. When it is 601px or wider, set the font-size to 80px. Resize the browser window to see the effect.


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