RWD Images

CSS Tutorial


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CSS Advanced


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CSS Responsive

CSS Grid

Responsive Web Design – Images

Using The width Property

When the width property is set to a percentage and the height property is set to “auto”, the image becomes responsive and scales up and down:

HTML
				
					<img fetchpriority="high" decoding="async" src="img_ca.jpg" width="460" height="345">
<p>Resize the browser window to see how the image will scale.</p>
				
			

CSS

				
					img {
  width: 100%;
  height: auto;
}
				
			

Output

Resize the browser window to see how the image will scale.

Using The max-width Property

When the max-width property is set to 100%, the image scales down if it has to, but never scales up to be larger than its original size

CSS
				
					img {
  max-width: 100%;
  height: auto;
}
				
			

Output

Resize the browser window to see how the image will scale.

Background Images

Background images respond to resizing and scaling.

Here we will show three different methods:

When the background-size property is set to “contain”, the background image scale, and try to adjust according to the content area. However, the image maintains its aspect ratio (the proportional relationship between the image’s width and height):

HTML
				
					<p>Resize the browser window to see the effect.</p>
<div></div>
				
			
CSS
				
					div {
  width: 100%;
  height: 400px;
  background-image: url('img_flowers.jpg');
  background-repeat: no-repeat;
  background-size: contain;
  border: 1px solid red;
}
				
			

Output

Resize the browser window to see the effect.

When the background-size property is set to “100% 100%”, the background image is stretched to cover the entire content area:

CSS
				
					div {
  width: 100%;
  height: 400px;
  background-image: url('img_flowers.jpg');
  background-size: 100% 100%;
  border: 1px solid red;
}
				
			

Output

Resize the browser window to see the effect.

When the background-size property is set to “cover”, the background image scales to cover the entire content area. Notice that the “cover” value maintains the aspect ratio, and some parts of the background image may be clipped.

CSS
				
					div {
  width: 100%;
  height: 400px;
  background-image: url('img_flowers.jpg');
  background-size: cover;
  border: 1px solid red;
}
				
			

Output

Resize the browser window to see the effect.

Different Images for Different Devices

A large image is perfect to fit on a big computer screen but is useless on a small device. To decrease the load, or for any other reasons, you can choose media queries to display different images on different devices.

Here is one large image and one smaller image that is showed on different devices:

HTML
				
					<p style="margin-top:360px;">Resize the browser width and the background image will change at 400px.</p>
				
			
CSS
				
					/* For width smaller than 400px: */
body {
  background-repeat: no-repeat;
  background-image: url('img_smallflower.jpg'); 
}

/* For width 400px and larger: */
@media only screen and (min-width: 400px) {
  body { 
     background-image: url('img_flowers.jpg'); 
  }
}
				
			

Output

background img

Using the media query min-device-width, within the min-width, which checks the device width, instead of the browser width. Then the image does not change when the browser window is resized:

CSS
				
					
/* For device width smaller than 400px: */
body {
  background-repeat: no-repeat;
  background-image: url('img_smallflower.jpg'); 
}

/* For device width 400px and larger: */
@media only screen and (min-device-width: 400px) {
  body { 
     background-image: url('img_flowers.jpg'); 
  }
}
				
			

Output

background img

The HTML <picture> Element

The HTML <picture> element provides web developers more flexibility in defining the image resources.

The common use of the <picture> element is for the images used in responsive designs. Instead of having one image that is scaled up or down based on the viewport width, multiple images are to be designed to fill the browser viewport.

The <picture> element works similar to the <video> and <audio> elements. You can set up different sources, and the first source that adjusts the preferences is the one being used:

HTML
				
					<picture>
  <source srcset="img_smallflower.jpg" media="(max-width: 400px)">
  <source srcset="img_flowers.jpg">
  <img decoding="async" src="img_flowers.jpg" alt="Flowers" style="width:auto;">
</picture>
<p>Resize the browser width and the background image will change at 400px.</p>



				
			

Output

background img

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