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Git Ignore and .gitignore

Git Ignore

When sharing of the code is done, there are certain files or parts of the project that we don’t wish to share.

Examples

  • log files
  • temporary files
  • hidden files
  • personal files

Git can specify the files or parts of the project that must be ignored by Git using a .gitignore file.

Git will not track files and folders specified in .gitignore. However, the .gitignore file itself IS tracked by Git.

Create .gitignore

In order to create a .gitignore file, go to the root of the local Git, and create it:

Example

[user@localhost]$ touch .gitignore

Open the file with a text editor.

Now, we’ll add two simple rules:

  • Any files with the .log extension should be ignored.
  • Any directory named temp should be ignored.

# ignore ALL .log files

*.log

# ignore ALL files in ANY directory named temp

temp/

Now all .log files and anything in temp folders will be ignored by Git.

Pattern

Explanation/Matches

Examples

 

Blank lines are ignored

 

text comment

Lines starting with # are ignored

 

name

All name files, name folders, and files and folders in any name folder

/name.log
/name/file.txt
/lib/name.log

name/

Ending with / specifies the pattern is for a folder. Matches all files and folders in any name folder

/name/file.txt
/name/log/name.log

no match:
/name.log

name.file

All files with the name.file

/name.file
/lib/name.file

/name.file

Starting with / specifies the pattern matches only files in the root folder

/name.file

no match:
/lib/name.file

lib/name.file

Patterns specifiing files in specific folders are always realative to root (even if you do not start with / )

/lib/name.file

no match:
name.file
/test/lib/name.file

**/lib/name.file

Starting with ** before / specifies that it matches any folder in the repository. Not just on root.

/lib/name.file
/test/lib/name.file

**/name

All name folders, and files and folders in any name folder

/name/log.file
/lib/name/log.file
/name/lib/log.file

/lib/**/name

All name folders, and files and folders in any name folder within the lib folder.

/lib/name/log.file
/lib/test/name/log.file
/lib/test/ver1/name/log.file

no match:
/name/log.file

*.file

All files withe .file extention

/name.file
/lib/name.file

*name/

All folders ending with name

/lastname/log.file
/firstname/log.file

name?.file

? matches a single non-specific character

/names.file
/name1.file

no match:
/names1.file

name[a-z].file

[range] matches a single character in the specified range (in this case a character in the range of a-z, and also be numberic.)

/names.file
/nameb.file

no match:
/name1.file

name[abc].file

[set] matches a single character in the specified set of

characters (in this case either a, b, or c)

/namea.file
/nameb.file

no match:
/names.file

name[!abc].file

[!set] matches a single character, except the ones specified

characters (in this case a, b, or c)

/names.file
/namex.file

no match:
/namesb.file

*.file

All files withe .file extention

/name.file
/lib/name.file

name/
!name/secret.log

! specifies a negation or exception.

/name/file.txt
/name/log/name.log

no match:
/name/secret.log

*.file
!name.file

! specifies a negation or exception.

/log.file
/lastname.file

no match:
/name.file

*.file
!name/*.file
junk.*

Adding new patterns after a negation will re-ignore a previous negated file.
All files withe the .file extension, except the ones in the

name folder. Unless the file name is junk

/log.file
/name/log.file

no match:
/name/junk.file

Local and Personal Git Ignore Rules

We can also ignore files or folders but not show them in the distributed .gitignore file.

These kinds of ignoring are specified in the .git/info/exclude file. It works a similar way as .gitignore and is not known to anyone else


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