CSS Pseudo-element

CSS Tutorial


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CSS Advanced


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CSS Responsive

CSS Grid

CSS Pseudo-elements

What are Pseudo-Elements?

A CSS pseudo-element is used to style specified parts of an element.

For example, it can be used to:

Style the first letter, or line, of an element

Insert content before, or after, the content of an element

Syntax

The syntax of pseudo-elements:

selector::pseudo-element {

  property: value;

}

The ::first-line Pseudo-element

The ::first-line pseudo-element is used to add a special style to the first line of a text.

The following example formats the first line of the text in all <p> elements:

HTML
				
					<p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.</p>
				
			
CSS
				
					p::first-line {
  color: #03989E;
  font-variant: small-caps;
}
				
			

Output

first element psuedo

The following properties apply to the ::first-line pseudo-element:

  • font properties
  • color properties
  • background properties
  • word-spacing
  • letter-spacing
  • text-decoration
  • vertical-align
  • text-transform
  • line-height
  • clear

The ::first-letter Pseudo-element

The ::first-letter pseudo-element is used to add a special style to the first letter of a text

The following example formats the first letter of the text in all <p> elements:

HTML
				
					<p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.</p>
				
			
CSS
				
					p::first-letter {
  color: #ff0000;
  font-size: xx-large;
}

				
			

Output

The following properties apply to the ::first-letter pseudo- element:

  • font properties
  • color properties
  • background properties
  • margin properties
  • padding properties
  • border properties
  • text-decoration
  • vertical-align (only if “float” is “none”)
  • text-transform
  • line-height
  • float
  • clear

Multiple Pseudo-elements

Several pseudo-elements can also be combined.

In the following example, the first letter of a paragraph will be red, in an xx-large font size. The rest of the first line will be blue, and in small-caps. The rest of the paragraph will be the default font size and color:

HTML
				
					<p>Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.</p>
				
			
CSS
				
					p::first-letter {
  color: #ff0000;
  font-size: xx-large;
}

p::first-line {
  color: #0000ff;
  font-variant: small-caps;
}
				
			

Output

CSS – The ::before Pseudo-element

The ::before pseudo-element can be used to insert some content before the content of an element.

The following example inserts an image before the content of each <h1> element:

HTML

				
					<h1>Hello</h1>
<p>The ::before pseudo-element inserts content before the content of an element.</p>
<h1>Hi</h1>
				
			
CSS
				
					h1::before {
  content: url(smiley.gif);
}
				
			

Output

before pseudo element

CSS – The ::after Pseudo-element

The ::after pseudo-element can be used to insert some content after the content of an element

The following example inserts an image after the content of each <h1> element:

HTML
				
					<h1>Hello</h1>
<p>The ::before pseudo-element inserts content before the content of an element.</p>
<h1>Hi</h1>
				
			
CSS
				
					h1::after {
  content: url(smiley.gif);
}

				
			

Output

after pseudo elements

CSS – The ::marker Pseudo-element

The ::marker pseudo-element selects the markers of list items.

The following example styles the markers of list items:

HTML
				
					<ul>
  <li>Coffee</li>
  <li>Tea</li>
  <li>Milk</li>
</ul>
<ol>
  <li>First</li>
  <li>Second</li>
  <li>Third</li>
</ol>
				
			
CSS
				
					::marker { 
  color: #03989E;
  font-size: 23px;
}
				
			

Output

pseudo marker

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