CSS Media Queries

CSS Tutorial


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CSS Advanced


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CSS Responsive

CSS Grid

CSS Media Queries

CSS2 Introduced Media Types

The @media rule, was introduced in CSS2, due to which it was possible to specify different style rules for different media types.

Examples: You can have one common set of style rules for computer screens, one for printers, one for handheld devices, one for television-type devices, and so on.

Unfortunately, these media types were not supported by devices, other than the print media type.

Media queries in CSS3 extended the CSS2 media types idea: they focused on the capability of the device.

Media queries are used to check many things, such as:

  • The viewport width and height.
  • The device width and height.
  • Orientation
  • Resolution

Media Query Syntax

A media query has a media type and can consists of one or more expressions, which resolve to either true or false.

				
					@media not|only mediatype and (expressions) {
  CSS-Code;
}

				
			

The result of the query is true if the defined media type matches the type of device the document is being shown on and all expressions in the media query are true. When a media query is true, the corresponding style sheet or style rules are applied, that follows the normal cascading rules.

Media Queries Simple Examples

Another methos to use media queries is to have an alternate CSS section right within the style sheet.

The below example illustrates the changing of  the background-color to lightgreen, if the viewport is 480 pixels wide or wider (if the viewport is less than 480 pixels, the background color will be pink)

HTML
				
					<body>
<h6>Resize the browser window to see the effect!</h6>
<p>The media query will only apply if the media type is screen and the viewport is 480px wide or wider.</p>
</body>
				
			
CSS
				
					body {
  background-color: pink;
}

@media screen and (min-width: 480px) {
  body {
    background-color: lightgreen;
  }
}
				
			

Output

Resize the browser window to see the effect!

The media query will only apply if the media type is screen and the viewport is 480px wide or wider.

The example displays a menu that floats to the left of the page, if the viewport is 480 pixels wide or wider (if the viewport is less than 480 pixels, the menu will be on top of the content):

HTML
				
					<div class="wrapper">
  <div id="leftsidebar">
    <ul id="menulist">
      <li class="menuitem">Menu-item 1</li>
      <li class="menuitem">Menu-item 2</li>
      <li class="menuitem">Menu-item 3</li>
      <li class="menuitem">Menu-item 4</li>
      <li class="menuitem">Menu-item 5</li>
    </ul>
  </div>
  
  <div id="main">
    <h6>Resize the browser window to see the effect!</h6>
    <p>This example shows a menu that will float to the left of the page if the viewport is 480 pixels wide or wider. If the viewport is less than 480 pixels, the menu will be on top of the content.</p>
  </div>
</div>
				
			
CSS
				
					.wrapper {overflow: auto;}

#main {margin-left: 4px;}

#leftsidebar {
  float: none;
  width: auto;
}

#menulist {
  margin: 0;
  padding: 0;
}

.menuitem {
  background: #CDF0F6;
  border: 1px solid #d4d4d4;
  border-radius: 4px;
  list-style-type: none;
  margin: 4px;
  padding: 2px;
}

@media screen and (min-width: 480px) {
  #leftsidebar {width: 200px; float: left;}
  #main {margin-left: 216px;}
}
				
			

Output

Resize the browser window to see the effect!

This example shows a menu that will float to the left of the page if the viewport is 480 pixels wide or wider. If the viewport is less than 480 pixels, the menu will be on top of the content.


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