Laravel 9 REST API Authentication using Sanctum Tutorial

Laravel 9 Sanctum gives a simple authentication system for SPAs (single-page applications), mobile applications, and simple, token-based APIs. Sanctum enables each user of your application in generating multiple API tokens for their account.

To create API for your mobile application, you can follow this tutorial for how to create the rest API step by step with Laravel 9 and sanctum.

Below are a few steps to create a restful API example in the Laravel 9 app.

Step 1: Install laravel 9

first, we need to install laravel app, and execute the below command to create a project:

composer create-project laravel/laravel example-app

Step 2: Install Sanctum

Install sanctum through the Composer package manager, so use the below command:

composer require laravel/sanctum

After installing the package, publish the configuration file with the following command:

php artisan vendor:publish --provider="Laravel\Sanctum\SanctumServiceProvider"

we need the default migration to create new sanctum tables in our database. Run the below command.

php artisan migrate

Add middleware for sanctum API, as below:

app/Http/Kernel.php

....
'api' => [
    \Laravel\Sanctum\Http\Middleware\EnsureFrontendRequestsAreStateful::class,
    'throttle:api',
    \Illuminate\Routing\Middleware\SubstituteBindings::class,
],

Step 3: Sanctum Configuration

Set the configuration on the 3 files model, service provider, and auth config file. So, change the following on that file.

In the model, we need to add HasApiTokens class of Sanctum,

In auth.php, add API auth configuration.

app/Models/User.php

<?php
namespace App\Models;
  
use Illuminate\Contracts\Auth\MustVerifyEmail;
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Factories\HasFactory;
use Illuminate\Foundation\Auth\User as Authenticatable;
use Illuminate\Notifications\Notifiable;
use Laravel\Sanctum\HasApiTokens;
  
class User extends Authenticatable
{
    use HasFactory, Notifiable, HasApiTokens;
  
    /**
     * The attributes that are mass assignable.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $fillable = [
        'name',
        'email',
        'password',
    ];
  
    /**
     * The attributes that should be hidden for arrays.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $hidden = [
        'password',
        'remember_token',
    ];
  
    /**
     * The attributes that should be cast to native types.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $casts = [
        'email_verified_at' => 'datetime',
    ];
}

Step 4: Add Product Table and Model

To migrate the products table using Laravel 9 PHP artisan command, so run the below command:

php artisan make:migration create_products_table

After this command, you will see one file in the following path database/migrations, and use the below code in your migration file to create a products table.

<?php
use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;
return new class extends Migration
{
    /**
     * Run the migrations.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function up()
    {
        Schema::create('products', function (Blueprint $table) {
            $table->id();
            $table->string('name');
            $table->text('detail');
            $table->timestamps();
        });
    }
  
    /**
     * Reverse the migrations.
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function down()
    {
        Schema::dropIfExists('products');
    }
};

After creating the migration, run the above migration by following the command:

php artisan migrate

After creating the “products” table, create a Product model for products, so create a file in this path app/Models/Product.php and use the below in the item.php file:

app/Models/Product.php

<?php
namespace App\Models;
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Factories\HasFactory;
use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;
  
class Product extends Model
{
    use HasFactory;
  
    /**
     * The attributes that are mass assignable.
     *
     * @var array
     */
    protected $fillable = [
        'name', 'detail'
    ];
}

Step 5: Create API Routes

Create API routes for login, register, and product rest API. Add a new route on that file.

routes/api.php

<?php
use Illuminate\Http\Request;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Route;
use App\Http\Controllers\API\RegisterController;
use App\Http\Controllers\API\ProductController;
  
/*
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------
| API Routes
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|
| Here is where you can register API routes for your application. These
| routes are loaded by the RouteServiceProvider within a group which
| is assigned the "api" middleware group. Enjoy building your API!
|
*/
  
  
Route::controller(RegisterController::class)->group(function(){
    Route::post('register', 'register');
    Route::post('login', 'login');
});
        
Route::middleware('auth:sanctum')->group( function () {
    Route::resource('products', ProductController::class);
});

Step 6: Create Controller Files

Create new controllers as BaseController, ProductController, and RegisterController.
we have created a new folder “API” in the Controllers folder because we will make alone APIs controller, so lets create both controllers.

app/Http/Controllers/API/BaseController.php

<?php
namespace App\Http\Controllers\API;
use Illuminate\Http\Request;
use App\Http\Controllers\Controller as Controller;
class BaseController extends Controller
{
    /**
     * success response method.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function sendResponse($result, $message)
    {
    	$response = [
            'success' => true,
            'data'    => $result,
            'message' => $message,
        ];

        return response()->json($response, 200);
    }

    /**
     * return error response.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function sendError($error, $errorMessages = [], $code = 404)
    {
    	$response = [
            'success' => false,
            'message' => $error,
        ];


        if(!empty($errorMessages)){
            $response['data'] = $errorMessages;
        }
        return response()->json($response, $code);
    }
}

app/Http/Controllers/API/RegisterController.php

<?php
   
namespace App\Http\Controllers\API;
   
use Illuminate\Http\Request;
use App\Http\Controllers\API\BaseController as BaseController;
use App\Models\User;
use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Auth;
use Validator;
   
class RegisterController extends BaseController
{
    /**
     * Register api
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function register(Request $request)
    {
        $validator = Validator::make($request->all(), [
            'name' => 'required',
            'email' => 'required|email',
            'password' => 'required',
            'c_password' => 'required|same:password',
        ]);
   
        if($validator->fails()){
            return $this->sendError('Validation Error.', $validator->errors());       
        }
   
        $input = $request->all();
        $input['password'] = bcrypt($input['password']);
        $user = User::create($input);
        $success['token'] =  $user->createToken('MyApp')->plainTextToken;
        $success['name'] =  $user->name;
   
        return $this->sendResponse($success, 'User register successfully.');
    }
   
    /**
     * Login api
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function login(Request $request)
    {
        if(Auth::attempt(['email' => $request->email, 'password' => $request->password])){ 
            $user = Auth::user(); 
            $success['token'] =  $user->createToken('MyApp')->plainTextToken; 
            $success['name'] =  $user->name;
   
            return $this->sendResponse($success, 'User login successfully.');
        } 
        else{ 
            return $this->sendError('Unauthorised.', ['error'=>'Unauthorised']);
        } 
    }
}

app/Http/Controllers/API/ProductController.php

<?php
   
namespace App\Http\Controllers\API;
   
use Illuminate\Http\Request;
use App\Http\Controllers\API\BaseController as BaseController;
use App\Models\Product;
use Validator;
use App\Http\Resources\ProductResource;
   
class ProductController extends BaseController
{
    /**
     * Display a listing of the resource.
     *
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function index()
    {
        $products = Product::all();
    
        return $this->sendResponse(ProductResource::collection($products), 'Products retrieved successfully.');
    }
    /**
     * Store a newly created resource in storage.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function store(Request $request)
    {
        $input = $request->all();
   
        $validator = Validator::make($input, [
            'name' => 'required',
            'detail' => 'required'
        ]);
   
        if($validator->fails()){
            return $this->sendError('Validation Error.', $validator->errors());       
        }
   
        $product = Product::create($input);
   
        return $this->sendResponse(new ProductResource($product), 'Product created successfully.');
    } 
   
    /**
     * Display the specified resource.
     *
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function show($id)
    {
        $product = Product::find($id);
  
        if (is_null($product)) {
            return $this->sendError('Product not found.');
        }
   
        return $this->sendResponse(new ProductResource($product), 'Product retrieved successfully.');
    }
    
    /**
     * Update the specified resource in storage.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function update(Request $request, Product $product)
    {
        $input = $request->all();
   
        $validator = Validator::make($input, [
            'name' => 'required',
            'detail' => 'required'
        ]);
   
        if($validator->fails()){
            return $this->sendError('Validation Error.', $validator->errors());       
        }
   
        $product->name = $input['name'];
        $product->detail = $input['detail'];
        $product->save();
   
        return $this->sendResponse(new ProductResource($product), 'Product updated successfully.');
    }
   
    /**
     * Remove the specified resource from storage.
     *
     * @param  int  $id
     * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
     */
    public function destroy(Product $product)
    {
        $product->delete();
   
        return $this->sendResponse([], 'Product deleted successfully.');
    }
}

Step 7: Create API Routes

Use eloquent API resources with API.  As it helps you to create the same response layout of your model object. We have used it in the ProductController file. Use the below command:

php artisan make:resource ProductResource

Create a new file with the new folder on the following path:

app/Http/Resources/ProductResource.php

<?php
namespace App\Http\Resources;
use Illuminate\Http\Resources\Json\JsonResource;
  
class ProductResource extends JsonResource
{
    /**
     * Transform the resource into an array.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @return array
     */
    public function toArray($request)
    {
        return [
            'id' => $this->id,
            'name' => $this->name,
            'detail' => $this->detail,
            'created_at' => $this->created_at->format('d/m/Y'),
            'updated_at' => $this->updated_at->format('d/m/Y'),
        ];
    }
}

Run Laravel App

Type the given below command and hit enter to run the Laravel app

php artisan serve

Now, navigate to your postman and check the following APIs.

make sure in the details API, use the following headers as listed below:

'headers' => [
    'Accept' => 'application/json',

    'Authorization' => 'Bearer '.$accessToken,

]

Here is Routes URL with the Request:

Run the above-listed URL as the bellow screenshot:

1) Register API: GET Request

Register api in laravel 9

2) Login API: Verb:GET

logon api in laravel 9

3) Product List API: GET Request

product list api

4) Product Create API: Verb:POST

product create api 9

5) Product Show API: GET Request

product show api 9

6) Product Update API: PUT Request

product update api laravel 9

7) Product Delete API: DELETE Request

product delete api laravel

Also, read Laravel 9 REST API with Passport Authentication Tutorial


Notice: ob_end_flush(): failed to send buffer of zlib output compression (1) in /home/u212091429/domains/mydevhelp.com/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5420

Notice: ob_end_flush(): failed to send buffer of zlib output compression (1) in /home/u212091429/domains/mydevhelp.com/public_html/wp-includes/functions.php on line 5420